Alternating current (AC) charging is typically how people charge their electric vehicles overnight. In that case, the EV has an onboard charger charging the battery, so the speed of charging depends on its speed. Typical maximum speeds of AC charge points are 7.4KWh, 11KWh, and 22KWh. AC charging uses a lower voltage, either Level 1 (120 volts or standard household current) or Level 2 (240 volts)

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) – fitted to many cars, adaptive cruise control uses sensors to work out how fast the car in front is traveling

AC Generator (or Alternator)
An electric device that produces an electric current that reverses direction many times per second – also called asynchronous generator

Accepted Charge Rate
The maximum charge rate the vehicle will accept during a DCFC session. While the charging station may be rated at say 150 kW, a particular EV may have a charge rate ceiling of 100 kW. Therefore, the vehicle will only charge at a max of 100 kW despite the charging station capable of supplying more power than the vehicle can handle

Using information around a vehicle to adjust its behavior. Often used with “adaptive cruise control,” where a car can increase or lower its speed depending on the traffic, and also the speed, of the car directly in front of it. The car does this by using a forward-facing radar system

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)
Vehicle systems designed to improve driving safety e.g. adaptive cruise control and forward-collision warning

The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids to the surface of the solids or liquids with which they are in contact

Automated / Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB)
Automated / Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems use laser or radar to identify potential crash situations and apply the brakes if necessary

Automated lane keeping systems (ALKS)
Using radar/lidar/cameras combined with AI to intervene in the steering to prevent drifting out of lane without intervention from the driver

AER (All-Electric Range)
The range any EV is able to reach solely using electricity

Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)
A type of hydrogen / oxygen fuel cell in which the electrolyte is concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the hydroxide ions (OH-) are transported from the cathode to the anode

Mixture containing mostly metals e.g. brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, steel contains iron and other metals but also carbon

Alternating Current (AC)
Current that flows from positive to negative and from negative to positive in the same conductor

Alternative Fuel
An alternative to gasoline or diesel fuel that is not produced in a conventional way from crude oil e.g. compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen

Ambient Air
The air surrounding a given object or system

Ambient Temperature
The temperature of the surrounding medium, usually used to refer to the temperature of the air in which a structure is situated or a device operates

Measurement of electric current

A negatively charged ion; an ion that is attracted to the anode

The electrode at which oxidation (a loss of electrons) takes place. For fuel cells and other galvanic cells, the anode is the negative terminal; for electrolytic cells (where electrolysis occurs), the anode is the positive terminal

Atmospheric Pressure
The force exerted by the movement of air in the atmosphere, usually measured in units of force per area. For fuel cells, atmospheric pressure is usually used to describe a system where the only pressure acting on the system is from the atmosphere; no external pressure is applied

The smallest physical unit of a chemical element that can still retain all the physical and chemical properties of that element. Atoms combine to form molecules, and they themselves contain several kinds of smaller particles. An atom has a dense central core (the nucleus) consisting of positively charged particles (protons) and uncharged particles (neutrons). Negatively charged particles (electrons) are scattered in a relatively large space around this nucleus and move about it in orbital patterns at extremely high speeds. An atom contains the same number of protons as electrons and thus is electrically neutral (uncharged) and stable under most conditions

Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System AVAS
Mandatory for all electric cars to emit an artificial noise while driving at slow speed

Generally speaking, there are six different levels of autonomy, from 0 to 5, where Level 1 would include adaptive cruise control, and a Level 5 gives all controls to the driving system

Autonomous Vehicles (AV)
AVs are vehicles where some aspects of a safety-critical control function such as steering, throttle control or braking occurs without direct driver input. They use onboard sensors, cameras, GPS and telecommunications to obtain and analyze information using complex computer algorithms, and respond appropriately by effectuating control in safety-critical situations


An energy storage device that produces electricity by means of chemical action. It consists of one or more electric cells each of which has all the chemicals and parts needed to produce an electric current

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
A car that runs purely on electric power, stored in an on-board battery that is charged from mains electricity (typically at a dedicated chargepoint)

Bipolar Plates
The Conductive plate in a fuel cell stack that acts as an anode for one cell and a cathode for the adjacent cell. The plate may be made of metal or a conductive polymer (which may be a carbon-filled composite). The plate usually incorporates flow channels for the fluid feeds and may also contain conduits for heat transfer

Blind Spot Alert (BSA)
Blind Spot Alert (BSA) / Monitoring (BSM) systems detect vehicles alongside and issue a visual or audible warning

British Thermal Unit (Btu)
The mean British thermal unit is 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (1 lb) of water from 32°F to 212°F at a constant atmospheric pressure. The Btu is equal to the quantity of heat required to raise one pound (1 lb) of water 1°F


CAM stands for connected and automated mobility

Carbon (C)
An atom and primary constituent of hydrocarbon fuels

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas that is slightly more than 1.5 times as dense as air and becomes a solid (dry ice) below -78.5°C

Carbon Monoxide (CO)
A colorless, odorless, tasteless, poisonous gas that results from incomplete combustion of carbon with oxygen

CASE stands for connected, autonomous, safe / shared, and electric vehicle

A chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed; after the reaction, it can potentially be recovered from the reaction mixture and is chemically unchanged

Catalyst Poisoning
The process of impurities binding to a fuel cell’s catalyst, lowering the catalyst’s ability to facilitate the desired chemical reaction

The electrode at which reduction as in a gain of electrons occurs. For fuel cells and other galvanic cells, the cathode is the positive terminal; for electrolytic cells (where electrolysis occurs), the cathode is the negative terminal

A positively charged ion

CAV stands for connected and automated vehicle

The metric temperature scale and unit of temperature (°C)

Centimeter (cm)
A metric unit of linear measure. One centimeter equals about 0.4 inch, and one inch equals about 2.5 centimeters. One foot is equal to approximately 30 centimeters

CHAdeMO plug
This quick charging system allows for charging capacities up to 50 kW at appropriate public charging stations. The following manufacturers offer electric cars which are compatible with… the CHAdeMO plug: BD Otomotive, CitroĂ«n, Honda, Kia, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Subaru, Tesla (with adaptor) and Toyota

Charging Station
An element of infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles

Charging Level 1
On-site circuit/outlet delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30 amps, which usually comes with the EV. The output to the vehicle is AC current. Cord sets provide a way of charging while at home or away on a trip where a quicker-charging Level 2 unit is not available. The low power flow leads to long recharge times

Charging Level 2
Level 2 supplies 240V, like what an electric dryer or oven uses. It goes through a box and a cord that improves safety by waiting to send power to the plug until it’s plugged into an EV

Charging Level 3
Also known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour. Level three chargers are currently rare as they’re very expensive and require more power

Combined Charging System (CCS)
The CCS is a combined fast-charging system that can deliver direct or alternating current. According to the US and European standards, there are two types: in the States,, the connectors are Type 1 and DC (called CSS1 or Combo1), while in Europe CCS2 is in use – Type 2 and DC(also called Combo2

Combustion Chamber
In an internal combustion engine, the space between the top of the piston and the cylinder head in which the air-fuel mixture is burned

Material created by combining materials differing in composition or form on a macroscale to obtain specific characteristics and properties

Compressed Hydrogen Gas (CHG)
Hydrogen gas is compressed to a high pressure and stored at ambient temperature

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors, consisting principally of methane in gaseous form that has been compressed

Compressed hydrogen storage
Method of storing gaseous hydrogen at ambient temperature at a pressure of up to 700 bar (CGH2 = Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen)

A device used for increasing the pressure and density of gas

A device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle allowing it to charge

Creep Mode
Creep Mode is a software setting allowing many EVs to continue moving forward without the accelerator being pressed – similar to the crawl experienced in an ICE vehicle when left in gear

Cryogenic Liquefaction
The process through which gases such as nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, and natural gas are liquefied under pressure at low temperatures

Current Collector
The conductive material in a fuel cell that collects electrons (on the anode side) or disburses electrons (on the cathode side)

Connected Vehicles (CV)
CVs are capable of communicating with each other (Vehicle-to-Vehicle or V2V), with roadside infrastructure, such as traffic control signals (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure or V2I and vice versa), or with other devices, such as mobile phones carried by road users -V2X


Direct current (DC) charging for electric vehicles allows for higher charging speeds since DC can be supplied directly to the electric vehicle’s battery at power levels usually higher than AC charging. The higher the DC power supplied, the faster the electric vehicle can be charged—provided the EV is designed to handle such power

DC Fast Charging (DCFC) – also referred to as Level 3 charging, DCFC is the fastest charging available for Evs

The decrease in battery capacity over time – Excessive DCFC, high ambient temperatures resultS in accelerated degradation, expect roughly 1-2% decrease in range per year

The amount of mass in a unit volume. Density varies with temperature and pressure

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)
A type of fuel cell in which the fuel is methanol (CH3OH) in gaseous or liquid form. The methanol is oxidized directly at the anode instead of first being reformed to produce hydrogen. The electrolyte is typically a PEM

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) describe the problem if a car develops a fault. They are logged in the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and help guide the repair

Diagnostics port
Also called an OBD port (for on-board diagnostics port), Mechanics often link into this port to read diagnostic details from the car, and detect problems

The spatial property of being scattered over an area or volume

DoD is the percentage of an EV battery that has been discharged compared to its overall capacity

Drive Units
The combination single-speed transmissions and electric motors that give EVs horsepower and torque


Electric vehicle (EV)
Can be used as a catch-all term for BEVs, PHEVs and REx, but often used to refer to pure electric vehicles i.e. BEVs

A conductor through which electrons enter or leave an electrolyte. Batteries and fuel cells have a negative electrode (the anode) and a positive electrode (the cathode)

A process that uses electricity, passing through an electrolytic solution or other appropriate medium, to cause a reaction that breaks chemical bonds (e.g., electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen)

A substance that conducts charged ions from one electrode to the other in a fuel cell, battery or electrolyzer

A stable atomic particle that has a negative charge; the flow of electrons through a substance constitutes electricity

Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE)
Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs. Enables the two-way communication between a charging station and electric vehicle

Emission Standards
Regulatory standards that govern the amount of a given pollutant that can be discharged into the air from a given source

A chemical reaction that absorbs or requires energy (usually in the form of heat)

The quantity of work a system or substance is capable of doing, usually measured in British thermal units (Btu) or Joules (J)

Energy Content
Amount of energy for a given weight of fuel

Energy Density
Amount of potential energy in a given measurement of fuel

Electro-mobility Service Provider

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

EREV (Extended-range electric vehicles): Vehicles that have the ability to run on a gasoline engine if the battery gets low

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)
An alcohol containing two carbon atoms. Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid and is the same alcohol found in beer, wine, and whiskey. Ethanol can be produced from cellulosic materials or by fermenting a sugar solution with yeast.

Exhaust Emissions
Materials emitted into the atmosphere through any opening downstream of the exhaust ports of an engine, including water, particulates, and pollutants

A chemical reaction that gives off heat

EV means Electric Vehicle, as opposed to one powered by petrol, diesel

Evasive Steering Assist (ESA)
Evasive Steering Assist (ESA) systems help the driver to steer round an obstacle if a collision cannot be avoided by braking alone

EVB (Electric Vehicle Battery): A battery that is used to power the movement of a BEV


A temperature scale and unit of temperature (°F)

Fast Charge Point, also known as a DC charge point or Rapid Charge point

Flammability Limits
The flammability range of a gas is defined in terms of its lower flammability limit (LFL) and its upper flammability limit (UFL)

The lowest temperature under very specific conditions at which a substance will begin to burn

Flexible Fuel Vehicle
A vehicle that can operate on a wide range of fuel blends (e.g., blends of gasoline and alcohol) that can be put in the same fuel tank

A material used to create heat or power through conversion in such processes as combustion or electrochemistry

Fuel Cell
A device that produces electricity through an electrochemical process, usually from hydrogen and oxygen

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
This term refers to an EV which uses a hydrogen fuel cell to power its electric motor

Fuel Cell Poisoning
The lowering of a fuel cell’s efficiency due to impurities in the fuel binding to the catalyst

Fuel Cell Stack
Individual fuel cells connected in a series. Fuel cells are stacked to increase voltage

Fuel Processor
Device used to generate hydrogen from fuels such as natural gas, propane, gasoline, methanol, and ethanol for use in fuel cells

Similar to a traditional trunk, but instead of being in the back of a vehicle, a frunk is located in the front. Many EVs have a frunk, due to the extra space from not having an engine or transmission


Fuel gas such as natural gas, undiluted liquefied petroleum gases (vapor phase only), liquefied petroleum gas-air mixtures, or mixtures of these gases.

  • Natural Gas—Mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors consisting principally of methane (CH4) in gaseous form
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)—Any material composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butanes (normal butane or isobutane) and butylenes
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Air Mixture—Liquefied petroleum gases distributed at relatively low pressures and normal atmospheric temperatures that have been diluted with air to produce desired heating value and utilization characteristics

Gas Diffusion
Mixing of two gases caused by random molecular motions. Gases diffuse very quickly, liquids diffuse much more slowly, and solids diffuse at very slow (but often measurable) rates

Mineral consisting of a form of carbon that is soft, black, and lustrous and has a greasy feeling. Graphite is used in pencils, crucibles, lubricants, paints, and polishes

Gravimetric Energy Density
Potential energy in a given weight of fuel

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect

Gross Battery Capacity
Not all of the battery capacity is useable to power the vehicle -manufacturers design the battery with a built-in buffer to help decrease the rate of degradation


Heat Exchanger
Device (e.g. radiator) that is designed to transfer heat from the hot coolant that flows through it to the air blown through it by the fan.

Heating Value (TOTAL)
The number of British thermal units (Btu) produced by the combustion of one cubic foot of gas at constant pressure when the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature of the gas and air, when the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed, and when all the necessary corrections have been applied

  • Lower (LHV)—The value of the heat of combustion of a fuel measured by allowing all products of combustion to remain in the gaseous state. This method of measure does not take into account the heat energy put into the vaporization of water (heat of vaporization).
  • Higher (HHV)—The value of the heat of combustion of a fuel measured by reducing all of the products of combustion back to their original temperature and condensing all water vapor formed by combustion. This value takes into account the heat of vaporization of water.

Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine

Head-up Displays (HUDs)
Head-up Displays (HUDs) beam key information such as speed or directions onto the windscreen, directly in the driver’s line of sight

Human-machine interface (HMI)
The interface responsible for two-way communication between a vehicle and its occupants

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
A vehicle combining a battery-powered electric motor with a traditional internal combustion engine. The vehicle can run on either the battery or the engine or both simultaneously, depending on the performance objectives for the vehicle – The battery’s charge in maintained by the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) – it cannot be charged by plugging into an electric supply

Chemical compounds formed when hydrogen gas reacts with metals – used for storing hydrogen gas

Hydrocarbon (HC)
An organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen, usually derived from fossil fuels, such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal

Hydrogen (H2)
Hydrogen (H) is the most abundant element in the universe, but it is generally bonded to another element. Hydrogen gas (H2) is a diatomic gas composed of two hydrogen atoms and is colorless and odorless. Hydrogen is flammable when mixed with oxygen over a wide range of concentrations.

Hydrogen-Rich Fuel
A fuel that contains a significant amount of hydrogen, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), natural gas, and coal


Internal Combustion Engine –The technical name for the gas-powered engine in most cars, SUVs, and trucks. It generates power by igniting an air-fuel mixture within a cylinder that forces down a piston. The number of cylinders in most modern engines varies from three all the way up to twelve, and engines can be enhanced with forced induction devices, called turbochargers and superchargers, that force more air into a cylinder to generate extra power. The byproduct of this power generation, however, are harmful emissions like hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2).

A charge point is occupied by a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE), preventing the charging of a EV

IEC 62196
Also known as the Mennekes, it is a type of connector that is used to charge Electric Vehicles in Europe

In-vehicle computer
Any or all computing systems inside the vehicle that power autonomous driving, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), or in-vehicle experiences e.g. integrated circuit (ASIC); central processing unit (CPU); field-programmable gate array (FPGA); graphics processing unit (GPU)

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
An engine that converts the energy contained in fuel inside the engine into motion by combusting the fuel. Combustion engines use the pressure created by the expansion of combustion product gases to do mechanical work

Atom or molecule that carries a positive or negative charge because of the loss or gain of electrons

Vehicle to grid communication interface is an international standard defining a vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.


JEVS G105-1993
Also known as CHAdeMO, it is a method developed to quickly charge Electric Vehicles through the use of a special adapter that delivers up to 62.5 kW – is used in Japan


Kilogram (kg)
Metric unit of weight or mass equal to approximately 2.2 lb. Related units are the milligram (mg) at 1,000,000 per kg and the metric tonne at 1,000 kg

Kilowatt (kW)
A unit of power equal to about 1.34 horsepower or 1,000 watts. it as the electric car’s equivalent of gallons of fuel in a gas tank


LI-ion battery
An abbreviation for the rechargeable lithium-ion battery used in BEVs and PHEVs

Liquefied hydrogen

Light detection and ranging (Lidar) sensors, Similar to radar, laser-based lidar is used by autonomous vehicles to see the world around them

Liquefied Hydrogen (LH2)
Hydrogen in liquid form. Hydrogen can exist in a liquid state but only at extremely cold temperatures. Liquid hydrogen typically has to be stored at -253°C (-423°F). The temperature requirements for liquid hydrogen storage necessitate expending energy to compress and chill the hydrogen into its liquid state

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Natural gas in liquid form. Natural gas is a liquid at -162°C (-259°F) at ambient pressure

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Any material that consists predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of hydrocarbons: propane, propylene, normal butane, isobutylene, and butylenes. LPG is usually stored under pressure to maintain the mixture in the liquid state

A substance that unlike a solid flows readily but unlike a gas does not tend to expand indefinitely


Megawatt (MW)
A unit of power equal to one million watts or 1,000 kilowatts

The separating layer in a fuel cell that acts as electrolyte (an ion-exchanger) as well as a barrier film separating the gases in the anode and cathode compartments of the fuel cell

Meter (m)
Basic metric unit of length equal to 3.28 feet, 1.09 yards, or 39.37 inches. Related units are the decimeter (dm) at 10 per meter, the centimeter (cm) at 100 per meter, the millimeter (mm) at 1,000 per meter, and the kilometer (km) at 1,000 meters.

Methane (CH4)
Natural gas

Methanol (CH3OH)
An alcohol containing one carbon atom used together with some of the higher alcohols, as a high-octane gasoline component and is a useful automotive fuel

Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV)
A MHEV is basically an ICE car with a battery that cannot actually propel the car forwards. For example, the battery can help make the stop / start function of cars work more efficiently

Miles Per Gallon Equivalent (MPGE)
Energy content equivalent to that of a gallon of gasoline (114,320 Btu) – Energy efficiency metric used to compare the amount of energy consumed by alternative fuel vehicles to that of traditional gas-powered cars

Milliwatt (mW)
A unit of power equal to one-thousandth of a watt

Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS)
Catch-all phrase for transportation

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
A type of fuel cell that contains a molten carbonate electrolyte. Carbonate ions (CO3-2) are transported from the cathode to the anode. Operating temperatures are typically near 650°C.


Sulfonic acid in a solid polymer form that is usually the electrolyte of PEM fuel cells

Natural Gas
A naturally occurring gaseous mixture of simple hydrocarbon components (primarily methane) used as a fuel

Neighborhood Electric Vehicle: BEV’s that are limited to streets with lower speed limits, typically around 45mph. NEV’s are all-electric and can be recharged using a standard outlet

NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride): A less reliable rechargeable battery

Nitrogen (N2)
A diatomic colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that constitutes 78% of the atmosphere by volume

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Any chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen oxides result from high temperature and pressure in the combustion chambers of automobile engines and other power plants during the combustion process. When combined with hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides form smog. Nitrogen oxides are basic air pollutants; automotive exhaust emission levels of nitrogen oxides are regulated by law.


Short for over-the-air, this refers to software updates which are given to vehicles remotely

A chemical, such as oxygen, that consumes electrons in an electrochemical reaction

Loss of one or more electrons by an atom, molecule, or ion

Oxygen (O2)
A diatomic colorless, tasteless, odorless, gas that makes up about 21% of air


Partial Oxidation
Fuel reforming reaction where the fuel is oxidized partially to carbon monoxide and hydrogen rather than fully oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. This is accomplished by injecting air with the fuel stream prior to the reformer

Pascal (Pa)
The Pascal is the International System of Units (SI)-derived unit of pressure or stress. It is a measure of perpendicular force per unit area. It is equivalent to one newton per square meter. A megapascal equals 1,000,000 Pascals

Ability of a membrane or other material to permit a substance to pass through it

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
A car with a combination of a traditional internal combustion engine and a rechargeable battery, allowing for either pure electric-powered driving or extended range from a combination of the petrol engine and electric motor

Plug-in vehicle (PiV)
A blanket term for any vehicle with a plug socket, including BEVs and PHEVs

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
A type of fuel cell in which the electrolyte consists of concentrated phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Protons (H+) are transported from the anode to the cathode. The operating temperature range is generally 160°C–220°C

Natural or synthetic compound composed of repeated links of simple molecules

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)
A fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane used as its electrolyte. Protons (H+) are transported from the anode to the cathode. The operating temperature range is generally 60°C–100°C.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC or PEFC)
A type of acid-based fuel cell in which the transport of protons (H+) from the anode to the cathode is through a solid, aqueous membrane impregnated with an appropriate acid. The electrolyte is a called a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). The fuel cells typically run at low temperatures (<100°C)

A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom that carries a positive electric charge and is not movable by electrical means

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
Polymer electrolyte membrane

Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle



Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect other objects. Self-driving cars can be equipped with radar to help the vehicle read the area around

Range anxiety
The term given to a fear of running out of charge while driving a plug-in EV

Range-extended EV (Rex)
An EV that has only an electric drivetrain, but a small petrol generator to charge the battery when range is depleted for longer trips – often considered a type of PHEV

A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

Device or process vessel in which chemical reactions (e.g., catalysis in fuel cells) take place

Hydrocarbon fuel that has been processed into hydrogen and other products for use in fuel cells

Device used to generate hydrogen from fuels such as natural gas, propane, gasoline, methanol, and ethanol for use in fuel cells

Chemical process in which hydrogen-containing fuels react with steam, oxygen, or both to produce a hydrogen-rich gas stream

Reformulated Gasoline
Gasoline that is blended so that, on average, it reduces volatile organic compounds and air toxics emissions significantly relative to conventional gasolines

Regenerative Fuel Cell
A fuel cell that produces electricity from hydrogen and oxygen and can use electricity from solar power or some other source to divide the excess water into oxygen and hydrogen fuel to be re-used by the fuel cell

A method of braking used by conventional hybrids in which energy from the braking of the vehicle is stored and used

Renewable Energy
A form of energy that is never exhausted because it is renewed by nature (within short time scales; e.g., wind, solar radiation, hydro power)

Reversible Fuel Cell
See regenerative fuel cell

Radio-frequency identification


The North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles. The SAE standard covers the general physical, electrical, functional, and performance requirements to facilitate conductive charging of EV/PHEV vehicles

State of Charge (SOC)
The current percentage of available battery capacity

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
A type of fuel cell in which the electrolyte is a solid, nonporous metal oxide, typically zirconium oxide (ZrO2) treated with Y2O3, and O-2 is transported from the cathode to the anode. Any CO in the reformate gas is oxidized to CO2 at the anode. Temperatures of operation are typically 800°C–1,000°C

Material that sorbs another (i.e., has the capacity or tendency to take it up either by adsorption or absorption)

Process by which one substance takes up or holds another

Steam Reforming
The process for reacting a hydrocarbon fuelsuch as natural gas with steam to produce hydrogen as a product- common method for bulk hydrogen generation


Technology Validation
Confirming that technical targets for a given technology have been met

Tesla Supercharging
Looks like a CCS charger and works like a CCS charger… it could very well be a Tesla Supercharger, which you can’t use, unless you drive a Tesla

Thermal Management System (TMS)
Thermal conditioning system to ensure good battery health throughout normal use

Time of Use (TOU)
A metering method for electricity by the utility provider where electricity rates depend on the time of use

A device used for increasing the pressure and density of a fluid entering a fuel cell power plant using a compressor driven by a turbine that extracts energy from the exhaust gas

Machine for compressing air or other fluids (reactant if supplied to a fuel cell system) to increase the reactant pressure and concentration

Type 1 and Type 2 cables
Level 1 and level 2 refer to charging power, type 1 and type 2 refer to different plug/socket types on AC lead – Type 1 is used by Leafs, plug-in Priuses, Mitsubishi MiEVs and so on. Type 2 is used by most modern EVs, and is becoming the standard, not least because it’s compatible with a CCS plug. Type 2 is also known as Mennekes, because that’s the company that makes the connector


GM’s brand of next-generation EV batteries, drive units and platform

Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV)
A car that has official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km and is eligible for grants and benefits from certain governments



Short for ‘vehicle-to-everything’ this is the term used to describe a network which connects autonomous cars to the world around them

The technologies used to provide image-based analysis (also called machine vision)

VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery): A rechargeable lead-acid battery

Volts, amps, watts
Multiplying volts by amps gives you watts. Watts is the measure of power – In most parts of the world, it’s between 220 and 240 volts and 10 amps maximum, so the peak wattage it can deliver is between 2200 and 2400 watts (2.2 to 2.4kW)

Volumetric Energy Density
Potential energy in a given volume of fuel


Water (H2O)
A colorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid compound of hydrogen and oxygen – water is the byproduct of the combination of hydrogen and oxygen and is produced during the burning of any hydrocarbon. Water is the only substance that expands on freezing as well as by heating and has a maximum density at 4°C

Watt (W)
A unit of power equal to one Joule of work performed per second; 746 watts is the equivalent of one horsepower

The term wt.% (abbreviation for weight percent) is widely used in hydrogen storage research to denote the amount of hydrogen stored on a weight basis, and the term mass % is also occasionally used

Wireless Battery Management System (wBMS)
A nearly wireless system that balances chemistry within the individual battery cell groups for optimal performance. It can also conduct real-time battery pack health checks and refocus the network of modules and sensors as needed – this helps safeguard battery health over the vehicle’s lifespan

Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Testing Procedure


Zero Emission Vehicle – A vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to health and the environment include particulates, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen – a popular example of a ZEV is a Tesla Model S

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